澳门太阳娱乐

图片 5
好莱坞有意还原泰中国足球球少年洞穴救援事件,大雨将至泰国少足队被困岩洞为何迟迟难救出

失业人数1300万,巴西失业率下降至12

女生在校学习成绩更好

图片 1图表源于:BBC

Gender, education and work: The weaker sex

Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, and
the gap is widening

在高中二年级月大学阶段,男孩正被女孩超过,且距离正日渐拉大。

“IT’S all to do with their brains and bodies and chemicals,” says Sir
Anthony Seldon, the master of Wellington College,
a**posh**English**boarding school**. “There’s
a**mentality**that it’s not cool for them to perform, that it’s not
cool to be smart,” suggests Ivan Yip, principal of the Bronx Leadership
Academy in New York. One school charges £25,000 ($38,000) a year and has
a**scuba-diving**club; the other serves subsidised lunches to most
of its pupils, a quarter of whom have**special needs**. Yet
both**are grappling with**the same problem: teenage boys are being
left behind by girls.

一所高档藏语寄宿高校的校长AnthonySeldon称“这点一滴取决于他们的大脑、身体和激素”。LondonBronx Leadership
Academy司长伊凡Yip称“他们分布感觉努力是不酷的,聪明是不酷的”。前面二个收取费用3.8万美元一年并设有潜水俱乐部;而另多个为其大多数学生提供中饭补贴,五分一的学生有特异教学须求。可是,它们都一致致力于化解同样难点:青少年男孩远远落后于女孩。

It is a problem that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago.
Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls,
and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich
world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance
has**tilted**the other way. Policymakers who once fretted about
girls’ lack of confidence in science now spend their time dangling
copies of “Harry Potter” before surly boys. Sweden has commissioned
research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading
programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books & Bytes”. In just a couple of
generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up.

那是一个十几年前不可能想像的主题素材。直到19世纪70时期从前,男孩比女孩开销更加长日子并收获更加高等教学育,且更有相当的大希望从高校结束学业。未来,无论是富裕世界如故特别多的特殊困难国家,平衡向另一方倾斜。曾经忧虑女孩缺少科学信心的计划拟定者们,现在越来越多时间在强行男孩日前摇晃《哈利Porter》。瑞士政坛已委托了一项有关“男孩危害”的商量。澳国张开了一项”男孩,男子,书和比特”的类型。仅仅几代时间内,前叁特性别差别消失,而后一种性别差别又冒出。

The**reversal**is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the
OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about
endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of
three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are
fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time,
a gulf has appeared. In all 64 countries and economies in the study,
girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to
an**extra**year of schooling.

以法国首都为驻地的有钱世界智库OECD于11月5号公布了一份简报中显得了这种反转。哥们在数学领域的主导地位差不离会四处。在平均年龄15虚岁时,男孩超过同年龄女孩3个月。在自然科学领域,男女学生表现优良。不过,在读书领域,女孩一直维系抢先地位,且距离变得更加大。在那项商量所涉及的61个国家和经济体中,女孩比男孩表现杰出。女孩平均比男孩超前一个学年。

The OECD**deems**literacy**to be the most**important skill that
it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage
boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency
in any of maths, reading and science (see chart 1). Youngsters in this
group, with nothing to**build on**or**shine at**, are prone to
drop out of school altogether.

因进一步学习需求依赖读写手艺,OECD将它当作评估中最重大的技能。果真如此,在完毕数学、阅读和自然科学的基础力量时,年轻男孩比女孩多出50%的停业大概。在这么些部落的小青年,因无所依据和无所优良,而更有十分的大只怕从全校辍学。

To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom,
first**look at**what they do outside it. The average 15-year-old
girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than
the average boy, who spends more time playing video games
and**trawling the internet**. Three-quarters of girls read for
pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are
falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving
up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as
the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter.

要了然怎么男士和女孩子在课堂内呈现出这么反差,先从课堂之外活动动手。一般16虚岁女孩周周费用5.5小时去做家庭作业,比平均男孩多一个钟头,他们开支更加的多时间玩电子游艺和上网。3/4的女子将阅读作为消遣,而独有八分之四多点的男生这么做。随着显示器稳步把目光从书本挪开,世界上具备地点的阅读率正慢慢裁减,而男士下跌速度越来越快。OECD开掘,在那多少个和一般女孩子职业一般的男人中,在阅读方面包车型大巴性别差距裁减了四分之二左右。

Once in the classroom, boys**long to**be out of it. They are twice
as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more
often turn up late. Just as teachers used to struggle to persuade girls
that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and
policymakers to steer boys away from a version of**masculinity**that
ignores academic achievement. “There are different pressures on boys,”
says Mr Yip. “Unfortunately there’s a tendency where they try to**live
up to**certain expectations in terms of [bad] behavior.”

一执教,汉子就渴望快点甘休。在报告中,多于女人2倍的汉子以为上课是浪费时间,並且更平日迟到。就像是过去教授努力说服女生自然科学并不只是男子领域,OECD前段时间提议家长和陈设拟定者携带男生远远地离开将忽视学术成就作为汉子气概展现的这种主见。Yip校长说:“男孩面前遭遇着五花八门的压力。但不幸的是,他们筹划在坏行为上不负被人盼望。

Boys’**disdain**for school might have been less irrational when
there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days**have
long gone**. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where
confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends
to**delusion**: 12% of boys told the OECD that they were familiar
with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive scaling”, a red herring
that fooled only 7% of girls). But their lack of self-discipline drives
teachers crazy.

当已经有为数比相当多干活可供未受教育男人选取时,男孩鄙视高校还显得没那么非理性。不过这么些生活已经没有。也是有的傲然有利于男生学习数学,自信促使男士当先(但一时则成为一种幻觉:12%的男孩告诉OECD他们了解”设想缩放“这一定义,而这一假概念则只蒙骗到7%的女孩)。但她俩缺乏自律让教授很喉咙疼。

Perhaps because they can be so insufferable, teenage boys are often
marked down. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymized
tests than in teacher assessments. The gap with girls in reading was a
third smaller, and the gap in maths—where boys were already ahead—opened
up further. In another finding that suggests a lack of even-handedness
among teachers, boys are more likely than girls to be forced to repeat a
year, even when they are of equal ability.

唯恐因为他们那样令人为难忍受,青年男孩平常给予非常的低分数。OECD开采,男孩在无名氏测验中的表现好于先生评估。在翻阅方面的性别差距减少了58%;而在数学方面,已当先的男士将反差拉大。另一切磋显得,因老师贫乏公正,纵然技巧格外。男生也比女子更有望被需求复读一年,

What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers
mark up students who are**polite, eager and stay out of fights**,
all**attributes**that are more common among girls. In some
countries, academic points can even be**dock**ed for bad behaviour.
Another is that women, who make up eight out of ten primary-school
teachers and nearly seven in ten lower-secondary teachers, favour their
own sex, just as male bosses have been shown to favour male underlings.
In a few places sexism is**enshrined**in law: Singapore
still**canes**boys, while**sparing**girls the rod.是什么

产生这种不一致对待?一种只怕的演说是教师的资质给予那些礼貌、热心和隔绝打斗的上学的小孩子更加高分数,而这么些特征在女孩中尤为常见。在有些国度,乃至会因不良行为而扣掉学业分数。另一种大概是,女人,构成了八成的小教的和附近五分四的初级中学等教育师,更偏好她们自身的性别,就好像男人上级偏幸男子下属一般。在一些地点在法律中也会有性别主义:新加坡共和国照样允许鞭刑男人,而女子则免于该民事诉讼法。

Some countries provide an environment in which boys can do better. In
Latin America the gender gap in reading is relatively small, with boys
in**Chile**,**Colombia**,**Mexico**and**Peru**trailing
girls less than they do elsewhere. Awkwardly, however, this nearly
always**comes with**a wider gender gap in maths,**in favour
of**boys. The reverse is true, too: Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which
have got girls up to parity with boys in maths, struggle with
uncomfortably wide gender gaps in reading. Since 2003, the last occasion
when the OECD did a big study, boys in a few countries have caught up in
reading and girls in several others have significantly narrowed the gap
in maths. No country has managed both.

在多少国家为男孩展现完美提供了情形。在拉美,阅读方面包车型地铁性别差别相对相当小。如智利、哥伦比亚(República de Colombia)、墨西哥和秘鲁(Peru)的汉子落后于女人小于别的地点。但是,令人嫌疑的是,那总伴随着男人在数学方面抢先于女人的差异加大。反过来也成立。女孩与男孩在数学方面表现非常的冰岛、挪威和瑞士联邦,挣扎于令人发怒的稳步加宽的翻阅方面性别差别。自二零零三年OECD最后三遍就此张开的周边考察彰显,少数国度匹夫在阅读方面碰到了女人,而在另一对国家女人成功减弱了数学方面包车型地铁反差。但从没国家成功落成双方。

Girls’ educational dominance**persists**after school. Until a few
decades ago men were in a clear majority at university almost everywhere
(see chart 2), particularly in advanced courses and in science and
engineering. But as higher education has boomed worldwide, women’s
enrolment has increased almost twice as fast as men’s. In the OECD women
now make up 56% of students enrolled, up from 46% in 1985. By 2025 that
may rise to 58%.

中档教育之后,女人的超越地位继续保证。直至新近数十年,男人大致并吞大学的主流人群,特别是不错与工程领域的高阶课程。不过,随着高教在世界范围的如火如荼,女子入学增加率大致两倍于男子。在OECD申报突显,女人注册率由1983年的61%升起至四分之二,到2025年也许上升至二分之一。

Even in the handful of OECD countries where women are in the minority on
campus, their numbers**are creeping up**. Meanwhile several,
including America, Britain and parts of Scandinavia, have 50% more women
than men on campus. Numbers in many of America’s elite private colleges
are more evenly balanced. It is widely believed that their opaque
admissions criteria are relaxed for men.

固然在个别女人是个外人全的OECD国家,女子数量也再慢慢攀升。与此同临时间,一些席卷美利坚合众国、英国和欧洲江山,女性比男性人口多于四分之二。在很多葡萄牙人才公立高校中,性别比例进一步平衡。许两人以为这几个大学的不透明招生标准更是偏心男人。

The feminisation of higher education was so gradual that for a long time
it passed unremarked. According to Stephan Vincent-Lancrin of the OECD,
when in 2008 it published a report pointing out just how far it had
gone, people “couldn’t believe it”.

高教的女子化进度如此缓慢,以至于在非常短日子内未被人发觉。据OECD的Stephan
Vincent-Lancrin称,当二〇〇八年一份有关告知摘马上,大家“不依赖那结果”。

Women who go to university are more likely than their male peers to
graduate, and typically get better grades. But men and women tend to
study different subjects, with many women choosing courses in education,
health, arts and the humanities, whereas men take up computing,
engineering and the**exact sciences**. In mathematics women
are**drawing level**; in the life sciences, social sciences,
business and law they have moved ahead.

跻身大学的女人,相对于他们的男子同僚,更有不小大概结束学业,且得到越来越好地作育。然而,男子和女人所选科目标偏向差别。更加多地女子采纳教育、健康、艺术和人管艺术学科,而男子越来越多选取Computer、工程和小巧科学等课程。在数学方面,女人正一如既往,而在准确、社会科学、商业和法律方面,她们处于超越地位。

Social change has done more to encourage women to enter higher education
than any deliberate policy.**The Pill**and a decline in the average
number of children, together with later marriage and childbearing, have
made it easier for married women to join the workforce. As more women
went out to work, discrimination became less**sharp**. Girls saw the
point of study once they were expected to have careers. Rising divorce
rates underlined the importance of being able to provide for yourself.
These days girls nearly everywhere seem more ambitious than boys, both
academically and in their careers. It is hard to believe that in 1900-50
about half of jobs in America were barred to married women.

对峙于另外蓄意的国策,社会变革更方便人民群众于勉励女子踏向高教。口服避孕片和平均育儿数量的减退,以及晚婚和晚育等,为已婚女子寻找职业提供了有助于。随着更加多女人步向专门的学问境遇,歧视变得没那么掌握。一旦女子被期望全体专门的学问发展时,女孩就开掘到上学的关键。上涨的离异率使得女人开掘到自个儿供养的首要性。近期,无论是学业上照旧职场上,世界外市的女孩比男孩表现出更东营想。不堪设想,在19世界上半叶,差非常的少大半U.S.A.工作禁止已婚女人从事。

So are women now on their way to becoming the dominant sex? Hanna
Rosin’s book, “The End of Men and the Rise of Women”, published in 2012,
argues that in America, at least, women are ahead not
only**educationally**but increasingly
also**professionally**and**socially**. Policymakers in many
countries worry about the**prospect**of a
growing**underclass**of**ill-educated men**. That should worry
women, too: in the past they have typically married men in their own
social group or above. If there are too few of those, many women will
have**to marry down**or not at all.

那么,女人是还是不是逐步改为主导性别?出版于贰零壹壹年的Ranna Rosin的《The End
of Men and the Rise of
Women》中提议,至少在U.S.A.,女人不唯有教育上超过,还在专门的学业上和社会上打头。大多国家的国策制订者顾虑数量日益攀升的下层阶级的启蒙程度十分的低的男性的前途前景。女子也理应顾忌那点。在过去,女子平日与同阶层或高于自个儿阶层的男性成婚。假如这种男性非常少,大多数女人只好寻找下阶层男子或选取不成婚。

According to the OECD, the return on investment in a degree is higher
for women than for men in many countries, though not all. In America
PayScale, a company that**crunches**incomes data, found that the
return on investment in a college degree for women was lower than or at
best the same as for men. Although women as a group are now better
qualified, they earn about three-quarters as much as men. A big reason
is the choice of subject: education, the humanities and social work pay
less than engineering or computer science. But academic research shows
that women attach less importance than men to the graduate pay premium,
suggesting that a high financial return is not the main reason for their
further education.

据OECD展现,虽不是全体,可是在十分多国家,高教投入对女子的报恩当先男子。一家募集收入多少的信用合作社America
PayScale开掘,雌性人类对于高校教育水平的投资报酬率相对于男子来说,极低或(在Infiniti意况下)相似。固然女子完全表现更加的,但她俩报酬水平仅为男子的3/4。主因在于绝对于工程或微型计算机科学等,女人采用教育、人文和社会科学那类薪给非常的低科目。可是,学术研商展现相对于男子,女子越来越少的关注薪给,呈现了谋求高回报并不是女子追求高教的首要原因。

At the highest levels of business and the professions, women remain
notably scarce. In a reversal of the pattern at school, the anonymous
and therefore gender-blind essays and exams at university protect female
students from bias. But in the workplace, says Elisabeth Kelan of
Britain’s Cranfield School of Management, “traditional patterns assert
themselves in miraculous ways”. Men and women join the medical and legal
professions in roughly equal numbers, but 10-15 years later many women
have chosen unambitious career paths or dropped out to spend time with
their children. Meanwhile men**are rising through the ranks**as
qualifications gained long ago fade in importance and personality,
ambition and experience come to matter more.

在高高的层级的小购买出售和行业内部领域,女子还是很少。女人在母校所显现优势被逆袭。在全校,散文及考试评价是佚名的,性别因素被幸免,而爱惜女人不受性别歧视的影响。然则,来自于United KingdomCraneField教院的埃利sabeth
Kelan称,在办事地方守旧方式再一次应验本人。同等数量的男子和女高丽参与理高校和法律高校,然则,10-15年现在,许多女人采纳了尤其干燥的职业路径或开销越多时光陪孩子。与此同时,随着在此之前习得的经历的机要日益消亡而本性、雄心和经验成为更为主要的熏陶因素,男人在生意层级上日益攀升。

For a long time it was said that since women had historically
been**underrepresented**in university and work, it would take time
to fill the pipeline from which senior appointments were made. But after
40 years of making up the majority of graduates in some
countries,**that argument is wearing thin**. According to Claudia
Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, the “last chapter” in the
story of women’s rise—equal pay and access to the best jobs—will not
come without big structural changes.

不短一段时间以来,流传着一种说法:因历史范围来看,无论是大学也许职场,女性所占比重不足,由此必要时日去创设通往高层职位的沟渠。但是40年来说,一些国家毕业生人数中女子形成主流,那项论证更加的站不住脚。据浦项中医药大学历史学教授Claudia高尔德in称,女人崛起的末段环节–平等的工资和最好专业恐怕–若不进行大幅结构调解是不会到来。

In a recent paper in the American Economic Review Ms Goldin found that
the difference between the hourly earnings of highly qualified men and
their female peers grows hugely in the first 10-15 years of working
life, largely because of a big**premium**in some highly paid jobs on
putting in long days and being constantly on call. On the whole men find
it easier than women to work in this way. Where such jobs are common,
for example in business and the law, the gender pay gap remains wide and
even**short spells**out of the workforce are severely penalised,
meaning that**motherhood**can**exact**a heavy price. Where pay
is roughly proportional to hours worked, as in pharmacy, it is low.

在AEPAJERO的风行文献中,Goldin女士开掘高水平劳引力中,在办事生活的10到15年间,男子小时报酬与女性差别巨大,重要原因在于高收益专业的急剧奖金取决于长日子专门的学问和每17日应对电话为前提。全体来说,男性相对于女性更擅长如此行事。在这种工作措施遍布的圈子,如商业和法规,性别薪给差距依然非常的大。并且,乃至长时间离开职业条件也说不定产生严重惩罚,意味着阿娘要求提交比较大代价。而当专业薪金首要依赖工时长度时,就好像配药房,性别薪俸差距相当的小。

There will always be jobs where flexibility is not an option, says Ms
Goldin: those of CEOs, trial lawyers, surgeons, some bankers and senior
politicians come to mind. In many others, pay does not need to depend on
being**available all hours**—and well-educated men who want a life
outside work would benefit from change, too. But the new gender gap is
at the other end of the pay spectrum. And it is not women who are
suffering, but unskilled men.

Goldin女士称:有个别事业是难以实现灵活性的,就像这么些CEOs、法院开庭审判律师、妇科医师、银行家和一些有名政客们。而除此以外别的职业,薪俸而不是在于随时待命。同期,受过优异教育且想要脱离职业的男人也会从中受益。然则,新的性别差别位于工资范围的另一端。受苦的不要女人,而是无技能的男人。

Some people think that it is better to educate boys and girls in
separate schools. Others, however, believe that boys and girls benefit
more from attending mixed schools. Discuss both these views and give
your own opinion.

  Girls outperform boys in school exams

Some countries have single-sex education models, while in others both
single sex and mixed schools co-exist and it is up to the parents or the
children to decide which model is preferable.

  Vocabulary: education: 词汇:教育

Some educationalists think that it is more effective to educate boys and
girls in single-sex schools because they believe this environment can
reduce distractions and encourage pupils concentrate on their studies.
This is probably true to some extent. It also allow more equality among
pupils and gives more opportunity to all those at the school to choose
subject more freely without gender prejudice. For example, a much higher
proportion of girls study science to a high level when they attend
girls’ schools than their counterpart in mixed schools do. Similarly,
boys in single-sex schools are more likely to take cookery classes and
to study languages, which are often thought of as traditional subjects
for girls.

  Around the world, girls do better than boys at school。 These are
the findings of a recent study that looked at the test results of 1.5
million 15-year-olds in 74 regions across the globe。

On the other hand, some experts would argue that mixed schools prepare
their pupils for their future lives. Girls and boys learn to live
together from an early age and are consequently not emotionally
underdeveloped in their relations with the opposite sex. They are also
able to learn each other, and to experience different types of skill and
talent than might be evident in a single gender environment.

  The level of gender equality in those regions made no difference to
the results。 Other factors, such as the income level of the region
also had little impact on the findings。 In only three regions –
Colombia, Costa Rica and the Indian state Himachal Pradesh – was the
trend reversed with boys doing better。

Personally, I think that there are advantages to both systems. I went to
a mixed school, but feel that myself missed the opportunity to
specialise in cookery because it was seen as the natural domain and
career path for girl. So because of that, I would have preferred to go
to a boys’ school. But hopefully times have changed, and both genders of
student can have equal chances to study what they want to in whichever
type of school they attend.

  So what are the causes of girls’ stronger performance? In the UK,
girls outperform boys in exams that are taken at the age of 15 or 16,
called GCSEs。 According to education expert Ian Toone, this is down to
the way girls and boys are brought up。 “Boys are encouraged to be more
active from an early age, whereas the restless movements of baby girls
are pacified… Hence, girls develop the skill of sitting still for
longer periods of time, which is useful for academic pursuits like
studying for GCSEs。“

  He goes on to say that boys often cluster together in larger groups
than girls。 Because of this they are more likely to be influenced by
peer pressure and develop a gang mentality。 He says that GCSEs require
a lot of solo work and are not viewed as ‘cool’ in a laddish culture。

  This is backed up by research in the UK that says girls are
out-performing boys at the age of five。 So what is the answer? Should
girls and boys be educated separately? Or do exams and school curricula
need to be changed to better reflect boys’ skills? These are the
questions facing educators in many countries。

  Glossary 词汇表

  gender equality男女一样

  factor因素

  income level收入水平

  to reverse a trend反败为胜一种趋势

  to pacify使安静、平定

  academic pursuit学术追求

  to cluster(人)聚集

  to influence影响

  peer pressure同龄人压力

  gang mentality黑帮心态

  solo单独的,独自地

  cool酷

  laddish幼稚的,孩子气的

  school curricula高校课程

  to reflect反映

  小说来源:BBC

实习编辑:王雨欣 主编:赵润琰

相关文章

No Comments, Be The First!
近期评论
    功能
    网站地图xml地图